(THE GHADIR DECLARATION (Hadith 21 to 30

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THE GHADIR DECLARATION

Hadith 21 to 30
HADĪTH NO. 21
عن عمرو بن ذي مر وزيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنهما، قالا: خطب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يوم غدير خم، فقال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه، وانصر من نصره، وأعن من أعانه.

“‘Amr bin Dhī Mur (RA) and Zayd bin Arqam (RA) have narrated that the Prophet (SAW) delivered an address on the day of Ghadīr Khum. He said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Be his friend who befriends him and be his enemy who is his enemy, and help him who helps him and assist him who assists him.”[21]

HADĪTH NO. 22
Exegetes and hadīth-scholars have described the following narration in the mode of revelation of the verse:

اليَوْمَ أكْمَلتُ لكُمْ دِيْنَكُمْ.

Today, I have perfected your religion for you.[22]

عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه، قال: من صام يوم ثمان عشرة من ذي الحجة، كتب له صيام ستين شهرا، وهو يوم غدير خم لما أخذ النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم بيد علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه، فقال: ألست ولي المؤمنين؟ قالوا: بلى، يا رسول الله. قال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه. فقال عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه: بخ بخ لك يا ابن أبي طالب! أصبحت مولاي ومولى كل مسلم، فأنزل الله: {اليَوْمَ أكْمَلتُ لكُمْ دِيْنَكُمْ}.

“Abū Hurayrah (RA) has narrated that one who fasted on 18 Dhul-hijjah will receive a reward equal to 60 months of fasting. This was the day of Ghadīr Khum when the Prophet (SAW), holding ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib’s hand, said: Am I not the guardian of the believers? They said: why not, O messenger of Allāh! He said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. At this ‘Umar bin al-Khattāb (RA) said: congratulations! O Ibn Abī Tālib! You are my master and (the master of) every Muslim. (On this occasion) Allāh revealed this verse: Today, I have perfected your religion for you.”[23]

HADĪTH NO. 23
Imām Rāzī comments on the mode of revelation of this verse:

يَاأيُّهَا الرَّسُوْلُ بَلِّغْ مَآ أنْزِلَ إلَيْكَ مِنْ رَّبِّكَ.

(O (honoured) Messenger! Whatever has been revealed to you from your Lord, convey (it all to the people).[24]

نزلت الآية في فضل علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام، ولما نزلت هذه الآية أخذ بيده، وقال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه. فلقيه عمر رضي الله عنه، فقال: هنيئا لك يا ابن أبي طالب! أصبحت مولاي ومولى كل مؤمن ومؤمنة.

وهو قول ابن عباس والبراء بن عازب ومحمد بن علي رضي الله عنهم.

“This verse has been revealed to stress ‘Alī’s excellence, and when the verse was revealed, the Prophet (SAW) caught hold of ‘Alī’s hand and said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Be his friend who befriends him, and be his enemy who is his enemy. (Soon) after this, ‘Umar (RA) met him (‘Alī (RA)) and said: O Ibn Abī Tālib! I congratulate you, now you are my (master) and the master of every male and female believer.

“It has been narrated by ‘Abdullāh bin ‘Abbās, Barā’ bin ‘Āzib and Muhammad bin ‘Alī (RA).”[25]

HADĪTH NO. 24
Most of the hadīth-scholars have described the tradition given below in the mode of revelation of the verse:

إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللهُ وَرَسُوْلُه وَالَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوا الَّذِيْنَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلاةَ وَيُؤْتُوْنَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُوْنَO

(Surely your (helping) friend is Allāh and His Messenger and (along with them) are the believers who establish prayers, pay zakāh and bow down (in humility before Allāh (SWT)).[26]

عن عمار بن ياسر رضي الله عنه، يقول: وقف على علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه سائل وهو راكع في تطوع، فنزع خاتمه فأعطاه السائل، فأتى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، فأعلمه ذالك، فنزلت على النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم هذه الآية: {إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللهُ وَرَسُوْله وَالَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوا الَّذِيْنَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلاةَ وَيُؤْتُوْنَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُوْنَ} فقرأها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، ثم قال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه.

“It is narrated by ‘Ammār bin Yāsir (RA) that a beggar came up to ‘Alī (RA) and stood beside him. He was kneeling in prayer. He (the beggar) pulled out his ring and he gave the ring to the beggar. Then ‘Alī (RA) called on the Prophet (SAW) and told him the news. At this occasion, this verse was revealed to him: (Surely your (helping) friend is Allāh and His Messenger and (along with them) are the believers who establish prayers, pay zakāh and bow down (in humility before Allāh (SWT)). Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) read out the verse and said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Be his friend who befriends him (‘Alī) and be his enemy who is his enemy.”[27]

HADĪTH NO. 25
عن عمار بن ياسر رضي الله عنه، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: أوصي من آمن بي وصدقني بولاية علي بن أبي طالب، من تولاه فقد تولاني ومن تولاني فقد تولى الله عز وجل، ومن أحبه فقد أحبني ومن أحبني فقد أحب الله تعالى، ومن أبغضه فقد أبغضني ومن أبغضني فقد أبغض الله عز وجل.

“It is narrated by ‘Ammār bin Yāsir (RA) that the Messenger of Allāh (SAW) said: whoso believed me and endorsed me, I shall pass on to him the legacy of ‘Alī’s spiritual leadership. Anyone who regarded him as his guardian, he regarded me as his guardian, and anyone who regarded me as his guardian, he regarded Allāh (SWT) as his Guardian, and anyone who loved him (‘Alī), he loved me and one who loved me loved Allāh (SWT), and one who bore malice towards him (‘Alī) bore malice towards me and one who bore malice towards me bore malice towards Allāh (SWT).”[28]

HADĪTH NO. 26
عن علي رضي الله عنه، أن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قال يوم غدير خم: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.

“It is narrated by ‘Alī ((RA) himself) that the Prophet (SAW) said on the day of Ghadīr Khum: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.”[29]

HADĪTH NO. 27
عن عبد الله بن بريدة الأسلمي رضي الله عنهما، قال: قال النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: من كنت وليه فإن عليا وليه.

وفي رواية عنه: من كنت وليه فعلي وليه.

“‘Abdullāh bin Buraydah al-Aslamī رضي الله عنهما)) relates that the Prophet (SAW) said: ‘Alī is indeed his guardian whose guardian I am.

“Another tradition is attributed to him (that the Prophet (SAW) said): ‘Alī is his guardian whose guardian I am.”[30]

HADĪTH NO. 28
The same tradition is narrated by Ibn Buraydah (RA) on the authority of his father in slightly different words that the Prophet (SAW) said:

ما بال أقوام ينتقصون عليا! من ينتقص عليا فقد تنقصني، ومن فارق عليا فقد فارقني، إن عليا مني وأنا منه، خلق من طينتي وخلقت من طينة إبراهيم، وأنا أفضل من إبراهيم، ذرية بعضها من بعض والله سميع عليم، … وإنه وليكم من بعدي. فقلت: يا رسول الله! بالصحبة ألا بسطت يدك حتى أبايعك على الإسلام جديدا؟ قال: فما فارقته حتى بايعته على الإسلام.

“What will happen to the people who show rudeness to ‘Alī! (Beware) that anyone who is rude to ‘Alī is rude to me, and anyone who parted from ‘Alī parted from me. Surely ‘Alī is from me and I am from ‘Alī. He has been created from my clay and I have been created from Ibrāhīm’s clay and I have an edge over Ibrāhīm. Some of us are the children of others and Allāh (SWT) hears and knows all these things… And He is the guardian of all of you after me. (Buraydah (RA) describes that) I said: O Messenger of Allāh! Spare some of your time and extend your hand. I want to take the oath of reaffirming Islam at your hand. And I did not part from him, so much so that I reaffirmed my faith in Islam.”[31]

HADĪTH NO. 29
عن عمرو بن ميمون رضي الله عنهما، قال ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما: قال (رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم): من كنت مولاه فإن مولاه علي.

“‘Amr bin Maymūm رضي الله عنهما)) has attributed it to Ibn ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما)) that the Messenger of Allāh (SAW) said: Surely one who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.”[32]

HADĪTH NO. 30
(قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم:) ألا! إن الله وليي وأنا ولي كل مؤمن، من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.

“(The Prophet (SAW) said): Beware! Surely Allāh is my guardian and I am the guardian of every believer, (and) one who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.”[33]

Refrences
[21]. Tabarānī related it in al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:192 # 5059); Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:104, 106); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:609 # 32946); and Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:170).

Nasā’ī has reproduced it in Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīn ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp.100,101 # 96) on the authority of ‘Amr Dhī Mur.

[22]. Qur’ān (al-Mā’idah, the Table spread) 5:3.

[23]. Khatīb Baghdādī related it in Tārīkh Baghdad (8:290); Wāhidī, Asbāb-un-nuzūl (p.108); Rāzī, at-Tafsīr-ul-kabīr (11:139); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:176,177); Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:464); and Tabarānī in al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (3:324#).

Ibn ‘Asākir narrated it through Abū Sa‘īd al-Khudrī in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:179)

Suyūtī said in ad-Durr-ul-manthūr fit-tafsīr bil-ma’thūr (2:259) that the verse (5:3) revealed when the Prophet (SAW) said on the day of Ghadīr Khum:

من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.
One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.

[24]. Qur’ān (al-Mā’idah, the Table spread) 5:67.

[25]. Rāzī related the tradition in at-Tafsīr-ul-kabīr (12:49, 50).

Ibn Abī Hātim Rāzī has copied Abū Sa‘īd al-Khudrī’s tradition from ‘Atiyyah al-‘Awfī in Tafsīr-ul-Qur’ān-il-‘azīm (4:1172 # 6609) to point out that the verse (5:67) was revealed in praise of ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (RA).

The following also related the tradition:

i. Wāhidī, Asbāb-un-nuzūl (p. 115).

ii. Suyūtī, ad-Durr-ul-manthūr fit-tafsīr bil-ma’thūr (2:298).

iii. Ālūsī, Rūh-ul-ma‘ānī (6:193).

iv. Shawkānī, Fath-ul-qadīr (2:60).

[26]. Qur’ān (al-Mā’idah, the Table spread) 5:55.

[27]. Tabarānī related it in al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (7:129, 130 # 6228), al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (4:174 # 4053; 5:195, 203, 204 # 5068, 5069, 5092, 5097), and in al-Mu‘jam-us-saghīr (1:65).

Ahmad bin Hambal narrated it in al-Musnad (1:119; 4:372); Hākim, al-Mustadrak (3:119, 371 # 4576, 5594); Diyā’ Maqdisī, al-Ahādīth-ul-mukhtārah (2:106, 174 # 480, 553); Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (7:17), Mawārid-uz-zam’ān (p.544 # 2205); Ibn Athīr, Asad-ul-ghābah fī ma‘rifat-is-sahābah (2:362; 3:487); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:332, 333 # 31662; 13:104, 169 # 36340, 36511); and Khatīb Baghdādī in Tārīkh Baghdad (7:377).

Hindī has written in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:609 # 32950): Tabarānī related this tradition from Abū Hurayrah (RA) and twelve Companions (RA), and Imām Ahmad bin Hambal has related it from Abū Ayyūb al-Ansārī (RA) and a larger number of Companions (RA). Hākim has narrated it from ‘Alī (RA) and Talhah (RA) in al-Mustadrak. Imām Ahmad bin Hambal and Tabarānī have related this tradition from ‘Alī, Zayd bin Arqam and thirty Companions (RA). Abū Nu‘aym has copied it from Sa‘d in Fadāil-us-sahābah and Khatīb Baghdādī has copied it from Anas (RA).

Khatīb Baghdādī has copied it in Tārīkh Baghdad (12:343) from ‘Abdullāh bin ‘Abbās (RA) along with the words:

من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.
One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.
[28]. Haythamī has related this tradition from Tabarānī in Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:108, 109) and has called its narrators credible (thiqah); and Hindī copied it in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:611 # 32958).

Ibn ‘Asākir narrated it in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:181, 182).

[29]. Ahmad bin Hambal related it with a sound chain of authorities in al-Musnad (1:152), and Fadā’il-us-sahābah (2:705 # 1206); Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.604 # 1369); Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (7:448 # 6878); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:77, 168 # 32950, 36511); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:161, 162, 163); and Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:171).

Haythamī, copying it in Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:107), has commented that its narrators are credible (rijāluhū thiqah).

[30]. Hākim related it in al-Mustadrak (2:129, 130 # 2589); Ahmad bin Hambal, al-Musnad (5:350, 358, 361); Nasā’ī, Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīn ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp. 85, 86 # 77); ‘Abd-ur-Razzāq, al-Musannaf (11:225 # 20388); Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:84 # 12181); and Manāwī in Fayd-ul-qadīr (6:218).

Hākim is of the view that this tradition is quite compatible with the requirements of Bukhārī and Muslim for a sahīh (sound) hadīth, and narrated the tradition through another chain of transmission on the authority of Sa‘d bin ‘Ubaydah (RA) who has relied on the narration of Abū ‘Awānah. He has also narrated it briefly on the authority of Buraydah al-Aslamī (RA) at another place in al-Mustadrak (3:110 # 4578).

Abū Nu‘aym related it briefly with the words —من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه (one who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master — in Hilyat-ul-awliyā’ wa tabaqāt-ul-asfiyā’ (4:23).

Ibn ‘Asākir related it in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:76).

Haythamī copied it in Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:108) and said: Bazzar narrated it and its men are those of sound hadīth (rijīluhū sahīh)

Hindī related it briefly with the words — من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه (one who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master) — in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:602 # 32905).

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